The Definition of Management

In business and organizations, management means to coordinate the efforts of people and use the available resources in an effective and efficient manner, so that the organizational goals and objectives are reached. The word manage comes from the Italian maneggiare, which originates in the Latin word manus (hand.) The English word management was influenced by the French mesnagement, later ménagement, in the 18th century. Although this is a comprehensive definition of management, there are other important aspects we will discuss in the following article.

Because the organization is viewed as a system, we can formulate another definition of management as the human action which facilitates the production of useful outcomes for that system. This means that we must learn to manage ourselves before we attempt to manage other people. Management has three characteristics: it concentrates on reaching goals and objectives, the objectives are reached by working with and through people and it is a process of continuing and related activities. To truly understand the definition of management, we will briefly describe the 4 key management functions.

1. Planning

Planning is the process of setting the right goals and course of action for an organization. This is accomplished in 3 stages: deciding which goals to pursue, the right actions and deciding how to efficiency allocate organizational resources to reach those objectives. Managers must outline exactly what the organization should do, in order to be successful in the short term and in the long term. The outcome of planning is the organization’s overall strategy, a collection of decisions about the goals, actions and resources. Because there is a high level of uncertainty and many risks involves, this process can be complex and difficult.

2. Organizing

Organizing involves establishing a structure of working relationships that facilitate interactions between members of the organizations. The employees are given work assignments and tasks organized so that they contribute to the success of departments, which influences the success of divisions and the organization as a whole. The outcome of the process is a viable organizational structure.

3. Leading

Leading, also refereed to as influencing or directing, involves guiding the activities of members so that the organization moves towards the achievement of goals and objectives. Leading means articulating a vision and engaging employees so that they are motivated to play a part in the organization. Its purpose is to increase productivity in the long run by human oriented work, rather than by task oriented work situations. Leadership involves the use of influence, persuasion, power and vision.

4. Controlling

Controlling is a process that focuses on evaluating how well the organization is achieving its objectives and taking measures to maintain or improve performance. According to the definition of management, the production of useful outcomes is facilitated by the human action. Managers must monitor the performance of departments, employees and the organization as a whole. If the desired standards are not met, they need to tale action to improve performance and regulate effectiveness.

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